Trastorno por Déficit de Atención e Hiperactividad (TDAH): controversias terapéuticas

Contenido principal del artículo

Emilia Alonso
Lucía Diz
María Amparo Fernández
Leonardo García
Gustavo Giachetto

Resumen

El Trastorno por Déficit de Atención e Hiperactividad (TDAH) es el trastorno neuropsiquiátrico más común en niños. Se carece de tratamiento curativo. Los beneficios y riesgos de las medidas farmacológicas y no farmacológicas disponibles son controvertidos. Esta revisión pretende aportar en la toma de decisiones clínicas para el tratamiento de este trastorno. Se hizo un análisis crítico de literatura médica publicada en PubMed, la que se complementó con entrevistas a profesionales calificados. Se encontró que los psicoestimulantes, especialmente metilfenidato, son fármacos de primera línea. Sus principales beneficios son: control de síntomas, mejora del rendimiento neurocognitivo y de la calidad de vida. Los efectos adversos más frecuentes son leves y transitorios. La toxicidad cardiovascular y la disminución del crecimiento son efectos adversos graves pero raros. El entrenamiento a padres disminuye significamente los síntomas y el entrenamiento cognitivo mejora además las capacidades cognitivas.Se concluye que los psicoestimulantes, en especial el metilfenidato, son la base del tratamiento sintomático del trastorno. A largo plazo es necesario monitorizar sus posibles efectos sobre el crecimiento y el riesgo cardiovascular. Se recomienda combinar con terapia no farmacológica (entrenamiento a padres y cognitivo) para potenciar beneficios y disminuir riesgos.

Detalles del artículo

Cómo citar
Alonso, E., Diz, L., Fernández, M. A., García, L., & Giachetto, G. (2015). Trastorno por Déficit de Atención e Hiperactividad (TDAH): controversias terapéuticas. Anales De La Facultad De Medicina, Universidad De La República, Uruguay, 2, 36-47. Recuperado a partir de https://anfamed.edu.uy/index.php/rev/article/view/156
Sección
Monografías

Citas


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